Edition No. 60 (2023)

In this edition

  • Paulownia TreesPaulownia, also known as the Princess Tree or Royal Paulownia, is a beautiful and elegant ornamental plant that belongs to the Paulowniaceae family. It is a long-lived tree with a lifespan of up to 100 years. The tree has heart-shaped leaves, fragrant flowers in shades of blue and purple, and oval-shaped fruits with numerous small seeds. Paulownia is known for its rapid growth and is widely cultivated for its strong and lightweight wood, which is used in various industries, including shipbuilding, furniture making, musical instruments, and more. The tree is also valued for its environmental benefits, as it purifies the air and contributes to reducing carbon dioxide levels. However, if planted indiscriminately, Paulownia trees can pose a risk to native plant species. Cultivating them in well-drained soil with a pH level of 5.5-7.5 is recommended, and providing supplemental irrigation during dry periods. When appropriately managed, Paulownia is a versatile and valuable tree with numerous uses and ecological advantages.


  • Red Palm WeevilThe Red Palm Weevil is a highly dangerous pest that affects date palm trees and their offshoots. Originally from India and East Asia, it poses a threat due to its ability to remain undetected inside the palm trunk for long periods and its high mobility. The weevil’s larvae cause significant damage to the trunk’s live tissues and can spread to multiple areas. Infestation symptoms include:
    • Gum-like fluids.
    • Decaying wood shavings.
    • Dead offshoots.
    • Wilting and yellowing leaves.
    • Bending of the growing tip.

Preventive measures include ensuring palm trees are free from infestation before trading, using pheromone traps, and treating offshoots with pesticides. Treatment involves removing affected areas and injecting suitable pesticides.

  • Mycotoxins in animal feed deplete dairy farmsMycotoxins are chemical compounds produced by undesirable fungi that grow on feedstuffs, from crop cultivation to dairy cow feeding worldwide. The most well-known mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and ergot alkaloids. Dairy cows consuming mycotoxins can experience reduced milk production, poor reproductive efficiency, digestive tract issues, increased somatic cell count, changes in milk composition, and various other problems. To protect cows, it is crucial to ensure the quality of feed ingredients, free from mold and mycotoxin contamination, and consider using mycotoxin binders in their diet. Preemptive feed analysis can help identify mycotoxin challenges early on and develop strategies to manage risks while safeguarding cow health, milk production, and overall profitability on dairy farms.


  • Challenges in the fisheries and seafood sector in JordanThe fisheries and seafood sector in Jordan faces several challenges due to the country›s limited fresh and marine water resources. The geographical nature of Jordan, with its small coastline along the Red Sea, particularly the Gulf of Aqaba, restricts the establishment of organized fishing fleets. Fish farming projects are also limited in the Gulf of Aqaba due to its small size and the presence of ports and tourist facilities. However, experiments have been conducted successfully on farming certain fish species, such as mullet and gilthead seabream. The availability of freshwater resources is more profitable for agricultural production than fish farming, given the limited quantity of fresh water, lack of technical expertise in fish production, and the importance of using fresh water for drinking purposes. Jordan relies heavily on importing fish products to meet the growing demand, as the local fish industry is still in its early stages of development. The challenges faced by the sector can be categorized into production, marketing, and regulatory challenges, which affect the efficiency and cost of local fish production.Recommendations to overcome these challenges include:
    • Providing affordable loans for small producers.
    • Strengthening veterinary supervision.
    • Enforcing quality standards for feed factories and fish products.
    • Encouraging integrated fish projects.
    • Minimizing imports of frozen fish products.
    • Supporting cooperative associations.
    • Conducting regular training programs for farmers.
    • Investing in veterinary laboratories.


  • Induced resistance in plantsInduced resistance in plants refers to their ability to adapt and defend against harsh environmental conditions, diseases, and pests through genetic and biochemical changes. It involves mechanisms such as enhancing root growth, producing chemical compounds for protection, boosting enzyme activity, and strengthening the plant’s immune system. Farmers can improve induced resistance through techniques like using biopesticides, organic fertilizers, and controlling environmental factors. Plants also employ external barriers, immune responses, rapid reactions, structural changes, genetic responses, chemical production, and physiological processes to combat diseases and insect infestations. Maintaining a conducive environment, monitoring plants for early detection of issues, and taking necessary measures are crucial in preserving and utilizing these resistance mechanisms.