Edition No. 58 (2022)

In this edition

  • Fertilizer prices are one of the primary issues in farmers’‭ ‬minds as they begin to set up purchases for the new growing season‭. ‬Nowadays‭, ‬one of the major topics discussed‭ ‬among farmers is the continuous cost increment of fertilizers and increasing concerns regarding availability‭. ‬Unfortunately‭, ‬the fertilizer prices in some areas are reporting up more than 300%‭ ‬, while delivery times are anyone’s best guess‭. ‬We’ve seen this before‭, ‬in 2008‭. ‬During the 12‭ ‬months ending in April 2008‭, ‬nitrogen prices increased 32%‭, ‬phosphate prices increased 93%‭ ‬, and potash prices increased 100%‭. ‬Prices remained there through 2009‭, ‬then dropped‭, ‬ultimately returning to pre-2007‭ ‬levels by the end of 2009‭. ‬That price surge was associated with strong domestic and global demand‭, ‬low fertilizer inventories, and the inability of the U.S‭. ‬fertilizer industry to adjust production levels‭. ‬This time‭, ‬the same factors and several others are severely affecting the global fertilizers market‭.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
  • Grafting herbaceous plants are used for various purposes. The rootstock is grafted shortly after seed germination while the plants are quite small. The advantages of vegetable grafting have been reported. Grafts were used to induce resistance against low and high temperatures, enhance nutrient uptake, increase the synthesis of endogenous hormones, improve water use efficiency, reduce uptake of persistent organic pollutants from agricultural soils, improve alkalinity tolerance, raise salt and flooding tolerance, and reduce the negative effect of heavy metal toxicity. Grafting is an alternative approach to reduce crop damage resulting from soil-borne pathogens and increase plant abiotic stress tolerance, which in turn increases crop production.
  • Mycorrhiza fungi can live with the roots of most plants in a symbiotic relationship. They help plants absorb phosphorus at a rate of 90%, which makes chemical fertilizers more effective and reduces the need for them.
    Moreover, Mycorrhiza fungi develop and enhance the plant’s root system to absorb water and nutrients while improving plant tolerance to pests and stress.
    According to the critical role of mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural production in terms of product quality and quantity, and the preservation of natural resources, there is a need to do more study and develop it to use the latest technology to produce them at an appropriate price and quality.
  • “New Technologies in Grapes production for Export
    Grape’s production is one of the profitable crops extensively spread across Egypt and Arabian countries. Recently and due to growing demand of export and higher value of Grapes, new varieties were introduced and new technologies like producing grapes under plastic in order to produce higher quality and earlier yield.
    This technology was initially started in Southern Italy in 1974 then expanded into many countries like Chile, South Africa and Egypt.
    Despite higher initial construction costs, some physiological damages specially due to lower temperatures under plastic versus outside temperature in winter, negative effect of strong wind and heavy rainfall, and higher cost of weed management; this technology still brings higher value and higher profit to the farmers due to: (1) earlier production by 15-20 days so higher selling prices (2) higher quality fruits in size and color (3) lower quantity of water irrigation due to lower evaporation and transpiration (4) lower fungal and pest infections (5) shorter cash cycle (6) lower quantity of fertilizers and pesticides and (7) possibility to produce early and excellent quality grapevine leaves in markets like Jordan, which represents an additional source of income to the farmer.
    The technology of producing grapes under plastic is very promising which with technical knowledge and best management practices can bring higher returns to the farmer.”
  • North African catfish are easy to grow and don’t need much attention; they are reared in ponds and concrete and plastic tanks with various levels of intensification. Traditional flooded ponds, where naturally recruited fingerlings are gathered during the rainy season and exogenous feed is provided, constitute a form of capture-based aquaculture.
    Sexual differentiation begins between 10 and 15 days after hatching. It is easy for the grower to distinguish the female from the male; therefore, it is accessible to reproduction in the incubators.
  • Diet improves our mental health.
    Specialists advise us to follow the following to improve our psychological state by eating colorful vegetables and fruits rich in fiber to support the beneficial microbes in the intestine. First, maintain an adequate fiber intake, up to 19-38 grams per day. Second, Making simple adjustments to your diet may effectively transform your psychological states, such as adding chia seeds, berries, and nuts to yogurt or eating dates between meals instead of pastries, which increases fiber intake. Discussing your diet may become part of mental health screenings in the future, prevention, and treatment of mental illness.